ICRU Report 48, Phantoms and Computational Models in Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection


This Report was prepared in recognition of the fact that the development of realistic body phantoms and computational models is strongly dependent on the availability of comprehensive human anatomical data.

This information is often missing, incomplete or not easily available. Thus, ICRU Report 48 emphasizes organ and body masses and geometries. The influence of age, sex and ethnic origins on human anatomy is considered. Existing types of phantoms and computational models used with photons, electrons, protons and neutrons are reviewed. Detailed specifications of more than ninety phantoms and computational models are provided in the Report. Major sections of the Report cover the following topics:

a. human anatomy
b. selection requirements for phantoms
c. phantoms in radiotherapy
d. phantoms in diagnostic procedures
e. phantoms in radiation protection
f. phantoms in radiobiology
g. computational models

Appendices cover human anatomical data, fabrication techniques and quality assurance.